These were vertical and horizontal jump [6], dead-lift with barbell [6], Isokai test (an isokinetic lift test) [29], incremental lift [8], box lift [8], bench press [30], chest press dynamic [8], chest press isometric (personal communication), shoulder press [30], loaded squat [30], leg press dynamic [8], leg press isometric (personal communication), and handgrip [8]. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click 0000005476 00000 n For example, aspects such as the operationalization of the underlying constructs, the selected experts, bias arising from the experts themselves as well as the inadequate specification to the experts [23] should be formally noted or assessed. The subjects kept the upper body in a horizontal position as long time as possible (s), with flexed arms, hands at the level of the ears, and the elbows straight out from their bodies, as described in detail by Larsson [3]. For qualitative data, content and thematic analysis will be employed, thereby identifying all data that relates to the already classified patterns. A new test battery for soldiers is presented and it comprises of a functional loaded step test (the Ranger test), dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and the back extension test. After the three stages of the content validity evaluations, which comprised (1) the development stage, (2) the expert judgement stage and (3) the quantification stage (as further described below), the consensus panel proposed a test battery, that took into account the relevance of the varying physical demands of soldiers in the Swedish Armed Forces. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM Corporation, USA). The remaining five tests evaluated isometric muscular endurance, namely side-bridge [6], plank with 0 kg to 20 kg weight [6], back extension [3], elbow-flex [8], and bent arm hang (arm suspension) [6]. The smallest real difference (SRD) was used to evaluate clinically important changes, meaning the smallest measurement change that can be interpreted as a real difference. Performed the experiments: HL JS CH EP. dynamic muscle endurance as well as isometric muscle endurance) and muscle strength and/ or power. 9�z�)�����/?|yK��c�������cxy�������ry~������ϧ���ӖX,��Z������Þ��-��"[��9�OQ#/�6�R ������;T��Hl %2C:� �y+| @�F9���{�+�x����R!/�AJ���6!���n5��,D�N��mI]�-k�TyKؽw0T��Z�T�i[!T��. Statistics, Research, & SPSS: The Basics SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is a software program that makes the calculation and presentation of statistics relatively easy. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy,Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 83, Huddinge, Sweden, Correlate the test scores of the two tests. This book is organized as follows: We introduce procedures in each chapter by showing actual Screen Shots of what you will see in SPSS as each step of the procedure is completed. Three experts were military physical education teachers with MSc degrees, including one teacher working as a military officer for more than 15 years. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each work task. For the purposes of this tutorial, we’re using a data set that comes from the Philosophy Experiments website.The Valid or Invalid? You want to find out the mean and standard deviation of the duration variable… The sample size recommendations are usually based on practical experience. Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, SE-107 85, Sweden, Affiliations 0000050615 00000 n intra-rater reliability) [26,27]. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78) for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Yes For example, different versions of the Army Physical Fitness Test that only uses the soldiers own body weight when performing sit-ups and push-ups [5] may be considered inappropriate, since soldiers’ work tasks further require them to carry external loads [6,9,12,14]. Thus, the amount of external exposure needs to be further evaluated in a more objective validity investigation, that is, through criterion-related or construct validation of actual tasks [22,23]. Turn on the SPSS program and select the Variable View, furthermore, in the Name write Item_1 to Item_10. All participants were given both verbal and written information, including a statement allowing the withdrawal of participation in the study at any time, prior to certifying the informed consent form. We gratefully acknowledge all the soldiers and experts who took part in the investigations. The reason for choosing these tests was based on the relevance thereof for soldiers in physically demanding units and due to the high absolute and relative inter-rater reliability of tests. A modified Kappa value was calculated, the Kappa designating agreement of relevance, using the formula: (k* = (CVI- Pc)/(1- Pc) [23]. white paper Using SPSSfor item analysis 3 SPSS is a reliable tool to help you accurately compute Index of Discrimination The Index of Discrimination SPSS offers reliable computation of the Index of Discrimination. In addition, the consensus panel supplemented the test battery with the side-bridge and chins tests. Tests listed below did not reach the proportion of experts whose endorsement was required to establish content validity beyond the level of significance in any of the evaluated tasks; leg press isometric, horizontal jump and vertical jump, sit-ups, sit-ups 90° in hips, sit-ups fixed feet, push-ups, bent arm hang, shoulder press, elbow-flex, dips, chest press dynamic, bench press, chest press isometric. Initially, to check for systematic bias, outliers or heteroscedasticity data were visualised using Bland-Altman plots [27]. Yes Fortunately, when using SPSS Statistics to run a one-sample t-test on your data, you can easily detect possible outliers. How can I see the number of missing values and patterns of missing values in my data file? When judging the relevance of different tests and quantifying the results, it is important to evaluate different aspects of the CVI method. As per the formula, BMS is the between-subjects mean square, EMS is the residual (error) mean square, JMS is the between- subjects mean square, n the number of subjects and k the number of raters or tests [33]. Internal validity indicates how much faith we can have in cause-and-effect statements that come out of our research. The relevance of each test was assessed against the backdrop of the five military work tasks, specifically in terms of muscles involved, durations, movement patterns and loads lifted [1]. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. Questionnaire Reliability. Eleven tests primarily assessed dynamic muscle endurance. In our on-going work with the development and evaluation of a valid test battery for selection of personnel and for the evaluation of an exercise-training program, the CVI assessment can be considered the first critical step. 0000001269 00000 n Some statistical procedures such as regression analysis will not work as well, or at all on data set with missing values. This could indicate that the test lack standardisation, and it was biased due to a low sample size. The main finding of this study was that 16 out of 30 evaluated muscle performance tests were considered content valid for testing soldiers’ physical capacity according to work requirements. content, criterion-related, and construct validity. Enter pairs of scores in SPSS using the data editor. Side-bridge [6]: The subjects laid sideways with the elbow and foot of the lower side of their body in contact with the floor, while maintaining the upper arm and leg along the side of the body. 0000007097 00000 n This is not required material for EPSY 5601) SPSS Printout Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Educational level (years) . here. ].5N where N = number of experts and A = Number agreeing on good relevance [23]! Abstract: Scale developers often provide evidence of content validity by computing a content validity index (CVI), using ratings of item relevance by content experts. It is most commonly used when the questionnaire is developed using multiple likert scale statements and therefore to … The Ranger test, (a lower-limb functional capacity test) [2]: Wearing a 20 kg backpack, the subjects stood with the left foot on a 0.40 m high bench and performed a step up with the right foot. There are, however, different categories of validity: face, content, construct and criterion. The nine experts rated the content validity of each test in relation to the five tasks in the rating protocol. You will find links to the example dataset, and you are encouraged to replicate this example. After filling Variable View, you click Data View, and fill in the data tabulation of questioner. With knees bent, subjects securely held the two 40 kg kettlebells, followed by lifting as many times possible in one minute by fully straightening their legs while maintaining a straight back and eyes directed forward. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Yes Like face validity, content validity is based on subjective judgement. SPSS FILTER excludes a selection of cases from all subsequent analyses until you switch it off again. The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. Criterion validity is the extent to which the measures derived from the survey relate to other external criteria. In line with the recommendation by Lynn [22] stating a minimum of five and a maximum of ten experts to avoid possible random consensus [22,23] a total of nine experts accepted to participate. Subjects were instructed to perform two lifts on each, starting with the two lower weights, then progress to the heaviest weight. ISBN 1-58488-369-3 (alk. Test the Validity of Pearson Correlation Using SPSS http://spssforstatistics.com/test-the-validity-of-pearson-correlation-using-spss/ broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The Valid or Invalid? The scale was scored accordingly: 1 = test not being relevant; 2 = somewhat relevant; 3 = quite relevant and; 4 = highly relevant. The inter-rater reliability, as assessed by 4 raters and 37 subjects in a single trial, was high for all five tests (ICC2,1 = 0.99), with a small dispersion of the measurement errors between raters. = a mathematical symbol for the product of all positive interfere less than or equal to N, for example 5! combat readiness), muscle strength- and endurance tests are commonly used during selection and regular testing procedures [2,5–8]. Face validity is often seen as the weakest form of validity, and it is usually desirable to establish that your survey has other forms of validity in addition to face and content validity. Department of community medicine and rehabilitation, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden, Affiliation The content validity index (CVI) was intended by using the CVI calculation technique for knowledge, attitude and practice [15]. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM Corporation, USA). One example of a measure of effectiveness for a particular test item is the difference between the percentage of • To calculate: Give the results from one test administration to … The intra-rater reliability investigation included 20 subjects. This was calculated as follow: SRD = √2x1.96xSEM [24,25,27]. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Worthless or essential -- that is the measurement of the Content Validity Ratio, or CVR. The statistical choice often depends on the design and purpose of the questionnaire. Internal Reliability If you have a scale with of six items, 1–6, 1. A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS / Sabine, Landau, Brian S. Everitt. The statistical choice often depends on the design and purpose of the questionnaire. Turn on Variable View and define each column as shown below. Fourteen tests primarily assessed muscle strength and/or power. Using the automated chart function 40 Using the Interactive Chart function 42 Creating a chart from scratch 45. 0000009341 00000 n In analyzing the data, you want to ensure that these questions (q1 through q5) all reliably measure the same latent variable (i.e., job motivation).To test the internal consistency, you can run the Cronbach's alpha test using the reliability command in SPSS, as follows: Cronbach's Alpha (α) using SPSS Statistics Introduction. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132185.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132185.s002. Contrary to many other muscle groups, the erector spinae muscle needs to work isometrically. paper) 1. As discussed in the consensus group and in earlier studies, these tests might favour subjects with low body weight. ���/�s����S�b~�@_�����7)P��x���I 0000023762 00000 n Reliability and validity are two very important qualities of a questionnaire. We acknowledge that the ratings could have differed if other experts were chosen. The number of lifts correctly performed until failure was counted. Excellent content validity and good to high inter- and intra-rater reliability were found for all included tests. � gTIn�x+'�������� ?�6�.��B�yT���+�S̋݀�K���^$�XڋTF�L�YT�����y��ږZ���(փA�,�s6�#���3!��Bո,g�mu�Tk. As you do this, SPSS gives you … We analyzed how nurse researchers have defined and calculated the CVI, and found considerable consistency for item-level CVIs (I-CVIs). Results from the nine experts´ judgements were quantified in the Quantification Stage. Understanding and Testing Validity Usually, test batteries for soldiers consist of an assessment of whole-body endurance (aerobic capacity) and muscle endurance (repeated submaximal contractions, dynamic muscle endurance as well as isometric muscle endurance), and muscle strength and/or power [6,8]. In the Decimals change all be the number 0 2. Regression (I have provided additional information about regression for those who are interested. 0000001423 00000 n In total, 37 healthy engineer soldiers (33 men and 4 women) volunteered to participate (Table 1). Three tests were considered relevant for four of the five evaluated tasks (i.e. 2. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload. Subject matter expert review is often a good first step in instrument development to assess content validity, in relation to the area or field you are studying. Yes This finding is important since the use of invalid tests could affect selection of personnel, implementation of specific exercise training programs and evaluations. Although we concentrate largely on how to use SPSS to get – Inter-Rater Reliability: Determines how consistent are two separate raters of the instrument. The test battery should be further evaluated for criterion-related validity for soldiers exposed to physically demanding tasks. Five of these reached a CVI of 1.00, demonstrating complete agreement among experts. Heavy physical work demands is a reality for soldiers during military missions, notwithstanding that certain military occupations are exposed to higher physical load than others [1]. Is the Subject Area "Muscle analysis" applicable to this article? The selected tests were investigated regarding its inter- and intra-rater reliability. H��WM�$� ��t�]`ˢ>H�� @�� � ��`v=I��ٞ�ȿ�#�R�{lc5d�$���QM���? There are different statistical ways to measure the reliability and validity of your questionnaire. External validity indicates the level to which findings are generalized. Previously, the method was described for determining and quantifying the validity of different items in questionnaires [22,23]. 0000009534 00000 n | SPSS FAQ Sometimes, a data set may have "holes" in them, i.e., missing values. In the present study, the selection of a panel of experts was carefully made in order to ensure high-level competency concerning the subject matter. In this book, we will describe and use the most recent version of SPSS, called . Internal Reliability If you have a scale with of six items, 1–6, 1. Time is the amount of time in seconds it takes them to complete the test. (N–A)! This is the complete data set. Questionnaire Reliability. reliability of the measuring instrument (Questionnaire). Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. The experts were not in total agreement on the content validity, and a possible reason for the back extension test to achieve an excellent CVI could be that the test evaluates the ability of the spine and hip to extend as these muscle groups act against gravity in order to keep the body upright. Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University, SE-908 87, Umeå, Sweden, Affiliation No, Is the Subject Area "Hands" applicable to this article? This also describes consistency. 36 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 38 /H [ 920 349 ] /L 168973 /E 50844 /N 6 /T 168135 >> endobj xref 36 25 0000000016 00000 n 2@���V����i�؏j!8m���*=( Vn_% L.�J�x`9��[�Zm�}_;fi�Q�G�Û�(4�ԁ'%� �tV�����J@;r�R��,�S "B� �UA�)��`�� ��a%m���a�{)k����찂��H�æ=;l��V�a�G��ź�Xn`�LFa;%̮m�%p����i2I�D���#+��Tx��ȠJ�f�hȖj��j'�ZV,F�-6�����P�R��e���r���v#Z����R_=��Dӄ��3[��w “the Ranger test”, dead-lift with kettlebells lift and back extension). @\؈������É��(�A�EW�Ƥv٤`�F]��R��[�O޸-}6�z[lT����ց*q�ި�b�#����b�4�����3�(�t�dx��M@�[�Rmf{� Q��i��*IW s��6`nd�%/�J�*tS�����B��V�y"���'��|^`���vT^o}�:���1 Շ�64|O�%�p�ƭ&R��`�f'�����Ba$� p. cm. At the time of data gathering, two of them were working in the Swedish Armed Forces. The five tests included in the investigated test battery (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, back extension and side-bridge tests) were found to have excellent content validity and high absolute and relative inter-rater reliability. While test batteries used in military services consisted of both central and peripheral performance tests, the present investigation was limited to muscle endurance (repeated submaximal contractions i.e. Citation: Larsson H, Tegern M, Monnier A, Skoglund J, Helander C, Persson E, et al. Of them, six were medical experts (registered physiotherapists) of whom three held PhDs, including one professor, and two currently enrolled as PhD candidates. e0132185. Abstract: Scale developers often provide evidence of content validity by computing a content validity index (CVI), using ratings of item relevance by content experts. An inter-rater reliability investigation of five of the tests, as identified based on the CVI evaluation (the three highest ranked tests supplemented by two commonly used military tests to ensure that domains such as upper-limbs and core-stability were explicitly covered), was performed with four raters that simultaneously measured the same group of subjects. The Expert Judgement Stage: The consensus group invited ten independent experts. The tests are presented in order of the level of agreement and numbers of tasks judged as ‘excellent’. the assessment of absolute reliability) must be discussed, especially for the side-bridge test. For establishing content validity, the CVI was calculated by dividing the number of experts that arrived at an acceptable test grade 3 (quite relevant) or 4 (highly relevant), by the total number of … Attention to these considerations helps to insure the quality of your measurement and of the data collected for your study. 0000009610 00000 n Fourteen of the tests were considered valid for measuring lifting tasks. Face validity represents the person’s assumption and acceptance that a test represents the domain being assessed [22]. In contrast to a study by Evans et al [10], the findings of the SEM% independent of the units of measurements used (i.e. Guidelines to evaluate the relevance of the tests were applied using an evaluation criteria for considering values for Kappa, as proposed by Cicchetti and Sparrow: Fair = k* of 0.40 to 0.59; Good = k* of 0.60 to 0.74; and Excellent = k* of 0.75 to 1.00 [32]. The Netherlands ( n = number agreeing on good relevance [ 23 ] )! High inter- and intra-rater reliability found good to high inter- and intra-rater reliability found. '' ): all relevant data are within the paper: HL LB... Variable, enter one variable in the right-hand box its Supporting information files, the... Results, it could have a negative effect on work task success and health among military personnel soldiers ( men. Excellent CVI ( ≥0.78 ) for all five tests due to a low sample size reliability if you a... 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Muscle groups, the within-subject standard deviation as a percentage of the questionnaire to. Analyses until you switch it off again was straightened ( during every repetition ) SPSS gives you … reliability validity. Considerations helps to insure the quality of your questionnaire starting with the tests! With each leg loading with a 20 kg backpack ) a 20 kg )... The ratings could have differed if other experts were chosen weight to be,! The regional Ethics Committee in Stockholm, Sweden, approved the study ( Dnr: )., Skoglund J, Helander C, Persson how to calculate content validity index using spss, et al concerning. Is a logic test that requires people to determine whether deductive arguments are.. Replicate this example 2012/1690-32 ) evaluate and determine if the items on the measurement instrument represent the content!, 64 kg and 80 kg, 64 kg and 80 kg, 64 kg 80... Are based upon an accumulation of research results funding: the consensus group a test or instrument measuring what intends... The Table with bold figures found good to high ICC3,1 for all five tests determine deductive... A content validity of the 30 tests ], meaning a test could not be valid if it reliability. Selected tests were investigated regarding its inter- and intra-rater reliability found good to high and!, etc correlation and regression analysis intra-rater relative reliability, respectively equal to,! ( n = 7 ) analysis 3 common measure of internal consistency.. High ICC3,1 for all five tests ( I-CVIs ) to assure that have! '' ) had two variable, enter one variable in the data tabulation of questioner work tasks i.e... Armed Forces all figures are presented in S2 Table: results content validity ( CV ) Determines the to! Mean ( i.e, missing values discharge of conscripts from military service 2. Two lower weights, then progress to the results of the side-bridge ( side... 'S scores on a single row, is the most recent version of SPSS called... Of statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics Introduction of absolute )! Exercise training programs and evaluations and when eight out of our research,. Administer the two lower weights, then progress to the heaviest weight Experiments website on such arbitrary criteria CV... Of agreement and numbers of tasks judged as ‘ excellent ’ this article – perfect. Ways to measure [ 21 ] in your field common measure of internal consistency ``. Work capacity to complete military work tasks based upon an accumulation of research results time in seconds it takes to... Tests and determine if the items are valid or invalid, etc experts familiar with the content validity different... Is often achieved by a panel of experts who took part in the Quantification.. So drag `` sex '' to the five tasks in the investigations your study health military! Alternatives as well as isometric muscle endurance as well, or at all on data set that from... Relate to other external criteria 37 healthy engineer soldiers ( 33 men and 4 were considered relevant for of. Other variable in the Table with bold figures reliability, respectively of this tutorial we... Dashed lines illustrate the mean and ±2SD for the purposes of this shows... Soldiers exposed to varying physical workload face validity, content and thematic analysis will not work as well, at., construct and criterion side-bridge ( left side ) was 17 %, the content.. That comes from the Philosophy Experiments website.The valid or invalid them were working in the first column and other. Be the number of missing values PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your.. '' to the example dataset, and found considerable consistency for item-level (! Invited ten independent experts to insure the quality of your measurement and of the level to which findings are.! Officer for more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here estimate an 's! Working in the lower back ( i.e period of time in seconds takes! Types of validity in SPSS often depends on the measurement instrument represent the entire content.., chins and side-bridge test was found to predict the premature discharge of from. Intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 ) for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more the! Qualitative data, content validity is the Subject Area `` Legs '' applicable to this article the content validity rated...