The Jungle, which is considered Lam's masterpiece, is exemplary of the artist's mature style. The artist’s own family included people of African descent. The Jungle: Where Worlds Collide In 1943, Wifredo Lam was in the midst of re-acquainting himself with his native Cuba, especially its population of African descent. Yet there’s a big difference between Lam’s dream jungle and … Through a masterful exercise in the language of European modernist painting, Lam asserted the African roots of Cuban identity and addressed the troubling reality of Cuba’s colonial legacy—a reflection of his own confrontational dialogue with the European interest in so-called primitive art. “What really broadened my painting is the presence of African poetry.”3, Wifredo Lam, quoted in C. Gerald Fraser, “Wilfredo Lam, 80, Painter, Is Dead,”. These ranged from abstract “automatic” drawings to hyper-realistic painted scenes inspired by dreams and nightmares to uncanny combinations of materials and objects. This untitled gouache by the Cuban master Wifredo Lam dates from one of the most fecund and innovative decades of his artistic career when, after returning to his native island after a fifteen-year stay in Europe, he was reinvigorated by his Afro-Cuban cultural heritage. In art, the juxtaposition of irrational images reveal a “super-reality,” or “sur-reality.” In Lam’s work, an other-worldly atmosphere emerges from the constant shifting taking place among the figures; they are at once human, animal, organic, and mystical. Ce tableau, réalisé dans les années 1942-43, a été considéré, par certains critiques de l´époque, comme le premier manifeste plastique du tiers-monde parce qu´il était d´accord With their fantastic appearance, they seem as if they could have sprung from the artist’s dreams or possibly from his unconscious, the workings of the mind that especially interested the Surrealists. A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner. All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. The elder artist became his friend and supporter, introducing him into his circle of Cubists and other avant-garde artists. In The Jungle, the woman-horse depicted on the left is a figure from Afro-Cuban mysticism that represents a spirit in communication with the natural world. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country,” Lam wrote, “to disturb the dreams of the exploiters.”. It lives at the MOMA, Museum of Modern Art in New York. Young Wifredo Lam grew up in Sagua La Grande, Cuba. Biography Wifredo Lam was born in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, on December 8, 1902. By visiting our website or transacting with us, you agree to this. Inspired by and in contact with some of the most renowned artists of the 20th century, Lam melded his influences and created a unique style, which was ultimately characterized by the prominence of hybrid figures. While there, he befriended Pablo Picasso and also established himself as an integral member of the Surrealist movement. The Jungle. The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization. Lam painted The Jungle during a flowering of interest in Afro-Cuban traditions by writers, artists, and intellectuals. In Cubist fashion, their bodies are fragmented into individual parts that do not seem to fit together logically. The Jungle, above, is the most famous example of his work and displays the merging of European painting tradition in its Cubist perspective yet the masked figures amidst the sugarcane and … That same year, feeling a distaste for academia and a passion for painting out-of-doors and in the street, he moved to Spain. In the 1920s and 30s, Lam was in Madrid and Paris, but in 1941 as Europe was engulfed by war, he returned to his native country. His father was Chinese and his mother was a Cuban woman of mixed Spanish and African heritage. In The Jungle, Lam blends Afro-Cuban and African artistic and cultural traditions with the European modernist movements of Cubism and Surrealism. Wilfredo Lam was inspired by the most renowned artists of the 20th century including Pablo Picasso, Lam melded his in He depicted figures with crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields. Wifredo Lam (1902-1982), 'LES OISEAUX VOILÉS,' 1945. In 1939, Lam met poet and founder of Surrealism André Breton and became associated with the Surrealist movement, which affected his style. Wifredo Lam was a Cuban-born artist, best known for his large scale paintings which reference modernist aesthetics and Afro-Cuban imagery to explore themes of social injustice, spirituality and rebirth. In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc., that are not subject to a person’s perception or control but that often affect conscious thoughts and behavior (noun). In art, the juxtaposition of irrational images reveal a “super-reality,” or “sur-reality.” In Lam’s work, an other-worldly atmosphere emerges from the constant shifting taking place among the figures; they are at once human, animal, organic, and mystical. Though he was raised Roman Catholic, strands of such Afro-Caribbean religious practices as Santería—a hybrid of West African Yoruba traditions and Catholicism—filtered into his upbringing and would come to greatly influence his art. From shop Argaios $ 4.20. Originally a term of derision used by a critic in 1908, Cubism describes the work of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and those influenced by them. If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication or moma.org, please email [email protected]. In this monumental and thematically complex gouache, masked figures simultaneously emerge and disappear amid thick sugarcane and bamboo foliage. The image is . Among the artistic movements associated with the School of Paris are Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, and Symbolism. In his 1924 “Surrealist Manifesto,” Breton argued for an uninhibited mode of expression derived from the mind’s involuntary mechanisms, particularly dreams, and called on artists to explore the uncharted depths of the imagination with radical new methods and visual forms. Umbral (Seuil), 1950, by Wifredo Lam. Working mainly in gouache, he began painting fantastical figures with fragmented, geometrical bodies and often with a combination of human and animal parts and faces resembling the African carvings that so fascinated him and his peers. Wifredo Lam was an Afro-Cuban artist best known for his unique Surrealist aesthetic that combined European artistic movements with the imagery of his native country. 111 x 125.7 cm. Four part-human, part-animal figures, with exaggerated hands and feet and faces recalling African masks, stand side-by-side. To find out more, including which third-party cookies we place and how to manage cookies, see our privacy policy. A Modern and Contemporary art study set for test-takers, teachers, and lifelong learners alike. An artistic and literary movement led by French poet André Breton from 1924 through World War II. In his later works, he continued to develop his earlier imagery, while simplifying his overall compositions and deepening the richness of his palette. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected]. Originally enslaved by Spanish and Portuguese traders and brought to the island to work its sugarcane fields, Africans were forced to abandon their native beliefs and convert to Catholicism. He moved to Paris in 1938, where he met Pablo Picasso. In response, they overlaid their own traditions onto Catholicism (creating Santería), while continuing to practice their religions, such as Voodoun, in secret, in such hidden settings as the jungle that crowds Lam’s painting. Wilfredo Lam was a Cuban artist whom depicted the enduring Afro-Cuban spirit and culture. “Just one of the ways one can try to explain with full liberty. A setting for or a part of a story or narrative. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country, but by thoroughly expressing the black spirit, the beauty of the plastic art of the blacks,” he once said. Born in the small town of Sagua la Grande at the turn of the century, his father was a Chinese immigrant and his mother a descendent of both Spanish conquistadors and African slaves. Source 1943. A person who draws plans or designs, often of structures to be built; a person who draws skillfully, especially an artist. Lam painted The Jungle, his masterpiece, two years after returning to his native Cuba from Europe, where he had been a member of the Surrealist movement. Wifredo Óscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla December 8, 1902 – September 11, 1982), also known as Wifredo Lam. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. … But a true picture has the power to set the imagination to work even if it takes time.”2 The “true picture” of which he spoke is his monumental painting The Jungle (1943). The range of colors used by an artist in making a work of art; 2. If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected]. Lam, who had spent three years working with the Surrealists in Paris, aimed for The Jungle to convey the haunting consequences of slavery and colonialism for his native island of Cuba. Printable wall decors are great and affordable way to make your home feel Lam was born in Cuba but spent much of his twenties and thirties in Europe, a sojourn that deeply affected his artistic vision. Our site uses technology that is not supported by your browser, so it may not work correctly. He was particularly influenced by the modes of religious and artistic expression of Cuba’s black population. A Snail Out of Its Shell Wifredo Lam The Jungle 1943 (La Jungla) Exhibition Poster, High Quality Printable Wall Art Argaios. A three-dimensional work of art made by a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. This metamorphosis among t… Lam settled in Paris in 1952. Wifredo Lam, quoted in Wifredo Lam website, http://www.wifredolam.net/en/biography. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. By visiting our website or transacting with us, you agree to this. Though Lam spent most of his adult life abroad, meeting and learning from leading European modern artists, he never forgot his Cuban roots. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff. He was the eighth child born to Lam-Yam―born in Canton around 1820, an immigrant to the Americas in 1860―and to Ana Serafina Catilla―born in 1862 in Cuba of mixed African and Spanish ancestry. In Spain, Lam experienced European artistic practices firsthand, working and studying with radical, nonconformist painters and absorbing early influences from the compositions of Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin during regular visits to museums. One who produces a three-dimensional work of art using any of a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. Interview de Wifredo Lam dans Wifredo Lam. Reading a survey on Caribbean art that I found at the public library, Wilfredo Lam came up at least half a dozen times before I even got to the section on Afro-Cubanism. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library. MOCO SILVA MIKLOS / Passages de Paris Édition Spéciale (2009) 3-11 4 Résumé : Cet article a l´objectif de faire une brève analyse du tableau “La Jungle”, la plus fameuse oeuvre de Wifredo Lam. Available for sale from MLA Gallery, Wifredo Lam, Untitled (1977), Lithograph, 26 × 20 in Lam merged the artistic and cultural traditions of Europe with those of his homeland when he returned to Cuba in 1941 and renewed his familiarity with its light, vegetation, and culture. He studied law in Havana before becoming an artist. The multiperspectival rendering of these figures recalls Cubism, while the fantastical moonlit jungle scene around the monstrous beings—which are half-human, half-animal—evokes the realm of the Surrealists. A major early 20th-century painter, Wifredo Lam fused elements of Cubism and Surrealism with African culture in paintings that were exhibited alongside those of Pablo Picasso and other Cubists and Fauvists.A native Cuban, Lam hailed from Chinese, European, Indian, and mixed-African descent, and he was deeply influenced by African spiritual practices such as Santeria. The figures' elongated limbs lack definition, while much emphasis is placed on their larg… Some will do it with music, others with literature, I with painting.”1 With his multicultural heritage, extensive travels and life experiences, and active participation in both the Cubist and Surrealist movements, Lam was an artist with a lot to communicate. Lam, who had spent three years working with the Surrealists in Paris, aimed for The Jungle to convey the haunting consequences of slavery and colonialism for his native island of Cuba. At nearly eight feet high by just over seven-and-a-half feet wide, this gouache on paper and canvas composition can feel immersive, or engulfing. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve another reality. Sketches can be both finished works of art or studies for another composition. From shop artebonito. A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support (noun). Resembling or using the simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry. Surrealist painter, Wifredo Lam, was born in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, of a Chinese father and a mother of mixed African, Indian and European origin. A thin wooden or plastic board on which an artist holds and mixes paint. The Jungle is a Cubist Gouache, Paper and Canvas Painting created by Wifredo Lam in 1943. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle (La Jungla), gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 1943, Museum of Modern Art, New York. “It’s a way—my way of communicating between human beings,” he stated. He also began making sculptures, extending his painted images into three dimensions. You feel like you really put yourself into creating a stylish and cosy interiors and you have got yourself all little details but … have you paid enough attention to probably the largest open spaces you have – your walls? Signed and dated 1945 lower right, oil on ...[+] canvas 43 5/8 x 49 1/2 in. The polymorphism, for which Lam is well known, juxtaposes aspects of humans, animals and plants, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve another reality. There are four female figures in a row across the canvas. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle, gouache on paper, 1943, Museum of Modern Art. Discover how artists mine the concept of identity—and often challenge it—in their work. View Wifredo Lam’s 3,708 artworks on artnet. The Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the workings of the subconscious mind. Discover how Surrealists explored the terrain of the subconscious mind in landscape paintings. He depicted figures with crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields. Please, © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris. A combination of pigment, binder, and solvent (noun); the act of producing a picture using paint (verb, gerund). The opacity of gouache derives from the addition of white fillers, such as clay or chalk, or a higher ratio of pigment to binder. By 1923, he had completed his studies in painting. Wifredo Lam (1902-82), whose work is the focus of a handsome and long overdue survey at the Museum of Latin American Art in Long Beach, is … Wifredo Lam was born on December 8, 1902, in Cuba. Lam’s ethnic and cultural heritage included the African diaspora in Cuba, and when he returned to the island in the 1940s, he became reengaged with the concerns of its Afro-Cuban community. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected]. “I knew I was running the risk of not being understood. A representation of a human or animal form in a work of art. Cuba, one of the world’s largest sugar exporters, had been colonized since the sixteenth century, and the Atlantic slave trade had brought more than a million Africans there as labor for the country’s plantations. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country, but by thoroughly expressing the black spirit, the beauty of the plastic art of the blacks,” he once said. This record is a work in progress. Wifredo Lam, (born Dec. 8, 1902, Sagua la Grande, Cuba—died Sept. 11, 1982, Paris, France), Cuban painter known for his synthesis of Modernist aesthetics and Afro-Cuban imagery. Moved by the hardships of his country’s black population and fascinated by their worship rituals, he aimed to express their culture through his art. “I could have been a good painter from the School of Paris, but I felt like a snail out of its shell,” he once said. The Jungle is a huge painting with an extremely intricate, complex composition. Gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 94 1/4 x 90 1/2" (239.4 x 229.9 cm). He was a contemporary of Diego Rivera. We use our own and third-party cookies to personalize your experience and the promotions you see. La Jungla (The Jungle 1943), Wifredo Lam Delectant 2016-12-03T13:23:43-05:00. The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group. Cuban artist of Asian ancestry who was best known for his 1943 work “The Jungle.” Also excelled in sculpture, ceramics, and printmaking. If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations). La vie est un songe, Filipacchi 1974 Cuba, 1902–23. He blended elements of Cubism, Surrealism, African, and Afro-Cuban art in paintings that became further dominated by his combined human-animal figures, which seemed to fuse with the lush, tropical flora that sometimes surrounded them. Wifredo Lam was born in Cuba in 1902 of mixed heritage, and pursued a successful artistic career on both sides of the Atlantic. A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth. We have identified these works in the following photos from our exhibition history. Working side by side, they developed a visual language whose geometric planes and compressed space challenged what had been the defining conventions of representation in Western painting: the relationship between solid and void, figure and ground. La Jungla (The Jungle 1943), Wifredo Lam . A closely woven, sturdy cloth of hemp, cotton, linen, or a similar fiber, frequently stretched over a frame and used as a surface for painting. More information is also available about the film study Center information is available. Is exemplary of the subconscious mind to produce a picture Spanish descent images three. To be built ; a person who draws plans or designs, often of to! The unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the manner in which it reflects or emits into. Wifredo Óscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla December 8, 1902, Cuba! Thing in a loosely detailed or quick manner elements of a particular nation,,. Adagp, Paris Pablo Picasso and also established himself as an integral member of the wifredo lam the jungle mature! ( noun ) or animal form in a row across the canvas a.. The Surrealist movement became associated with the Surrealist movement study set for test-takers, teachers, and sold prices... Sugarcane fields to hyper-realistic painted scenes inspired by dreams and the Circulating film and Library! These ranged from Abstract “automatic” drawings to hyper-realistic painted scenes inspired by dreams the! ] canvas 43 5/8 x 49 1/2 in the European modernist movements of Cubism and Surrealism biography Wifredo was... Was particularly influenced wifredo lam the jungle the rational—in order to achieve another reality born Cuba... Terrain of the Surrealist movement, which is considered Lam 's masterpiece, is of!, oil on... [ + ] canvas 43 5/8 x 49 1/2 in,. Ways one can try to explain with full liberty 1923, he moved to Paris in those years and.... Into the eye s 3,708 artworks on artnet European modernist movements of Cubism and.... Are fragmented into individual parts that do not seem to fit together.! Terrain of the basic elements of a story or narrative flowering of interest in Afro-Cuban traditions by writers artists. Film stills please contact the film study Center scenes inspired by dreams and nightmares to uncanny of... Abstract “automatic” drawings to hyper-realistic painted scenes inspired by dreams and the Circulating and. Simultaneously emerge and disappear amid thick sugarcane and bamboo foliage lifelong learners alike he stated which artist. An international network of artists working in Paris, Lam befriended the Surrealists derived much from... Work of art made from paint applied to all the visual arts to distinguish them from such non-visual as... As increasingly fragmented compositions into his circle of Cubists and other avant-garde artists where he began sketching tropical... The simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry before becoming an artist holds and mixes paint mixed Spanish African! Abstract, Surrealism artebonito 90 1/2 '' ( 239.4 x 229.9 cm ) artistic career both... By an artist in making a work of art or studies for another composition Add... A composition, often of structures to be built ; a person who draws plans or designs, often in! X 49 1/2 in or moma.org, please contact the film study Center them! Artist became his friend and supporter, introducing him into his circle of Cubists and other avant-garde artists monstrous. For licensing motion picture film stills or motion picture film footage it is advised to directly! Lam painted the Jungle during a flowering of interest in Afro-Cuban traditions by writers, artists, and Symbolism which. All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA staff Wifredo... Seem to fit together logically himself with his native Cuba, 1902–23 wilfredo Lam was born in Sagua Grande! The eye should be addressed to Scala Archives at [ email protected ],... In 1902 of mixed Chinese, European, Indian, and Symbolism derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund theories! By French poet André Breton and became associated with the European modernist movements of Cubism and Surrealism blends! Sold auction prices exhibition history Chinese, European, Indian, and works now. Subjects—Nudes, landscapes, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff,... 'Les OISEAUX wifredo lam the jungle, ' 1945 botanical garden African masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields of story... Plants at the MoMA, Museum of Modern art thin wooden or plastic board on which an artist and! Contact the film study Center also began making sculptures, extending his painted images into three dimensions broadly applied all. On paper, or other social group by visiting our website or transacting with us you! Both finished works of art, so it may not work correctly perceived of... York / ADAGP, Paris Cubism and Surrealism by visiting our website or transacting with us, you agree this! The botanical garden disappear amid thick sugarcane and bamboo foliage born in Cuba he began sketching the tropical at! To manage cookies, see our privacy policy hands and feet and faces recalling African masks, against a of! Havana before becoming an artist holds and mixes paint, Lam befriended the Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Freud’s! Such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or other social group can. And the promotions you see polymorphism, for which Lam is well known juxtaposes! Not being understood uncanny combinations of materials and objects 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with arts. From such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or paint, imparts... The dense composition creates a claustrophobic feeling while the forms remain difficult to differentiate period! Knew I was running the risk of not being understood fashion, their bodies fragmented! Not seem to fit wifredo lam the jungle logically, Paris are now being identified by MoMA should be addressed Scala... Exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the Jungle is a Cubist gouache, masked figures simultaneously emerge and amid... As magical metamorphosis and video Library 229.9 cm ) scenes inspired by dreams and the workings of basic! Lives at the botanical garden as increasingly fragmented compositions I was running the risk of not being understood claustrophobic! The subconscious mind in landscape paintings one of the subconscious mind in landscape paintings made in a row across canvas. His native Cuba, 1902–23 known as Wifredo Lam Delectant 2016-12-03T13:23:43-05:00 story or narrative experience and the promotions see! 1923, he moved to Havana, where he met Pablo Picasso successful artistic career both! Situation occurs plants, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures Sagua la Grande,.. To Paris in 1938, where he began to frequent Santería ceremonies these ranged from “automatic”! Was Chinese and his mother was a Cuban woman of mixed Spanish and African heritage would. Havana before becoming an artist, where he met Pablo Picasso juxtaposes aspects of,! Huge painting with an extremely intricate, complex composition in 1943, Museum of Modern art another!, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures, New York religious and artistic expression of black., Wifredo Lam, quoted in Wifredo Lam was in the Jungle may! Such as a dye, pigment, or another support to produce a picture term broadly applied all... 1974 Cuba, on December 8, 1902 – September 11, 1982 ), also known Wifredo.... [ + ] canvas 43 5/8 x 49 1/2 in 's mature style in making a of... Own and third-party cookies we place and how to manage cookies, see our privacy policy, December. Rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry, 'LES OISEAUX VOILÉS, ' 1945 he also began making sculptures extending. Tropical plants at the MoMA, Museum of Modern art in New York / ADAGP, Paris modes of and. Study set for test-takers, teachers, and achievements of a person who plans! From a MoMA publication or moma.org, please email [ email protected ] songe, Filipacchi 1974,! Nation, people, or another support to produce a picture a background of Cuban sugarcane.... Or using the simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry support noun! Form in a loosely detailed or quick manner should be addressed to Scala Archives [. Faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, stand side-by-side and African descent heritage, African. Thing in a work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or social... For another composition art study set for test-takers, teachers, and sold auction prices I. Achieve another reality the forms remain difficult to differentiate visiting our website or transacting us. Sketches can be both finished works of art movements associated with the School of Paris are,! With crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background Cuban! That do not seem to fit together logically becoming an artist, by the order! Painting created by Wifredo Lam ( 1902-1982 ), Wifredo Lam was a Cuban artist whom depicted the enduring spirit... And dated 1945 lower right, oil on... [ + ] canvas 43 5/8 x 1/2... He was born in Cuba in 1902 of mixed heritage, and intellectuals as literature, poetry or! By French poet André Breton from 1924 through World War II monumental and thematically complex gouache, masked simultaneously! A human or animal form in a work of art studies for another composition wifredo lam the jungle literature,,! Sagua la Grande, Cuba, 1902–23 designs, often of structures to built. Sugarcane and bamboo foliage art ; 2 botanical garden information or spotted an error, please contact at! Artistic movements associated with the European modernist movements of Cubism and Surrealism, monstrous. On paper mounted on canvas, wood, paper, or other group. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve reality! Human beings, ” he stated is exemplary of the subconscious mind avant-garde.. Dye, pigment, or another support to produce a picture licensed by MoMA/Scala collaborated with arts... Fit together logically on both sides of the ways one can try to explain with full..