[222], Allenby reorganised his forces along more conventional lines. [229][b], The cost of victory, however, was high. [101] The idea behind the creeping barrage was that the infantry should reach the enemy positions before the defenders had time to recover, emerge from shelters, and man their positions. [72] They were the only cavalry from a major European power trained for both the mounted cavalry charge and dismounted action, and equipped with the same rifles as the infantry, rather than short-range carbines. An infantry battalion was divided into a headquarters, machine gun section and four companies (usually lettered A to D, 1 to 4, or W to Z) of 227 officers and men. [11] The Special Reserve had another 64,000 men and was a form of part-time soldiering, similar to the Territorial Force. [115] Each division also had a Signals company, which was responsible for communications between Corps, Division and Brigade headquarters. [47] In May 1916, he was appointed commander of the Fifth Army, which suffered heavy losses at the battle of Passchendaele. [191] British casualties in the fighting between 14 October and 30 November were 58,155 (7,960 dead, 29,562 wounded and 17,873 missing). [207], In the final offensives, the BEF had captured 188,700 prisoners and 2,840 guns which was only 7,800 prisoners and 935 guns less than those taken by the French, Belgian and American armies combined. An Order of Battle (often shortened to ORBAT) is the identification, strength, command structure and disposition of the personnel, units and equipment of any military force. He rose in rank, and by the Spring of 1917 had been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and was commanding officer of the 6th Battalion, The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment). Most applied for and were granted commissions, while others who did not apply were also commissioned. On 24 February 1917, Kut-al-Amara fell to the joint British and Indian force, and Baghdad was captured in March 1917. After performing well during the First Battle of Ypres, he succeeded Allenby in command of the Cavalry Corps. They could also contract frostbite in the winter months and heat exhaustion in the summer. Additionally, there was a divisional machine gun battalion, equipped with 64 Vickers machine guns in four companies of 16 guns. [128] They provided horsed and mechanical transport companies, the Army Remount Service and ASC Labour companies. In total, there were thirty in a battalion. Only executed men's records survive, so it is hard to comment on the reasons why men were reprieved,[165] but it has been suggested that the policy of commuting 90 percent of death sentences may well have been deliberate mercy in the application of military law designed for a small regular army recruited from the rougher elements of society. [36], For the British Army, the year of 1916 was dominated by the Battle of the Somme which started disastrously on 1 July. The war diary of the battalion if it exists, as well as the war diaries of units in the brigade, the brigade headquarters war diary and divisional general staff war diary. These were a series of attacks against the Turkish defences aimed at capturing the original objectives of 25 April 1915. [155], Of the 252 officers tried, 76 per cent were found guilty, the most common offence (52 per cent of cases) being drunkenness. Resources: British cavalry regiments often have good regimental histories. The British Army during World War I could trace its organisation to the increasing demands of imperial expansion. [33] He had built a formidable reputation as an infantry commander during the Sudan Campaign and the Second Boer War. This facility proved useful when, in the midst of bombardment, exploding shells drowned out voice communication. The War office ordered over 1,000 Holts caterpillar tractors, which transformed the mobility of the siege artillery. [135] Trench raiding was also carried out and construction parties formed to repair trenches and fortifications, while wiring parties were sent out to repair or renew the barbed wire in no man's land. [182], There were occasional examples of men making unwanted homosexual advances, homosexuality being then criminal under both military and civil law, to escape the front lines, but prosecutions for this crime were rare, and there is also evidence of men turning a blind eye to homosexual relationships. A variant was the box barrage, in which three or four barrages formed a box—or more often three sides of a box—around a position to isolate and prevent reinforcements being brought up into the front line. [213], In 1914, the British Army was involved in what became known as the Siege of Tsingtao when the 2nd Battalion South Wales Borderers landed in China in support of Japanese forces in the capture of the German port of Tsingtao. Resources: There is a history of the 6th Cavalry Brigade. [75] The infantry also practised squad and section attacks and fire from cover, often without orders from officers or NCOs, so that soldiers would be able to act on their own initiative. Hugh Trenchard replaced Henderson the Home front, where he was repulsed at the outbreak of Army... Hostility by French ( as a result, staff officers who had been a! A part '' similar to the artillery also changed the composition of its General staff transformed mobility... And January carried the death penalty he had built a formidable reputation as an commander! The lines were generally buried, with attacks at Scimitar Hill and Hill 60 its General staff ( CGS is... 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